Glossary of Terms

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3D embroidery

Puff embroidery is a more interesting and more fashionable version of traditional embroidery. It enables embroidery to be done on several levels thereby giving the design texture, making it more attractive.

Absorbency

The ability of fabric to take in moisture. Very important in relation to skin comfort, but other factors important too, effect on static build up, staining and removal, water repellency, shrinkage and wrinkling.

A-Line

A garment with sloping sides, the widest part being at the hemline.

Allowance

Extra fabric outside the seamline or within the garment to accommodate gathers, ease, tucks and pleats.

Armhole

The opening in a garment for the arm.

Azo dyes

Potentially carcinogenic banned dyestuffs.

Back tack

Where the machine is reversed at the end of a seam to prevent run back of the sewing.

Bands

Strips of fabric, ribbon or bias applied to edges or set into garments to finish or decorate.

Bartack

A stitch pattern put in by an automatic machine to reinforce stress points.

Binding

A bias strip of material used to enclose a raw edge as a finish or trim.

Blend

A mixture of different fibres in one yarn or different yams in one fabric, each lending it’s own characteristics to the fabric.

Blind stitch

A form of hemming made by catching only one thread of the outer fabric.

Breathability

Popular misnomer which really should be Moisture Vapour Permeable. The ability of a fabric to transpire moisture vapour reducing condensation by physical or chemical means.

Calendaring

Heat and pressure finishing process to put a lustrous, glazed or embossed finish on one or both surfaces of a fabric.

Cap

The top part of a sleeve which is curved to fit the armhole.

Capsleeve

Extension of the shoulder and upper armhole to cover the top of the arm.

Carding

Combing process of raw fibres to clean and sort, creates thin layer of fibre prior to spinning.

Casing

A hem with an opening so that ribbon or elastic may be drawn through.

Centre front

The position of the pattern of garment at the exact centre of the front section of the garment.

Ceramic decals

This technique is based on placing a special paper with printed images (logotypes, lettering) on the surface of a mug or a cup. Then the item is fired at a temperature of 700-820 ⁰C, which ensures high quality and durability of the final product.

Clip

A small cut in the seam allowance of a garment which allows a comer or curved area to turn and lie flat.

Closing

A placket or any garment opening

Colourfastness

A dyed fabric’s ability to resist fading due to light exposure and washing.

Construction

Basic seams that give shape to flat cloth lines.

Co-ordinates

A number of garments which match and can be worn together in different combinations.

Cord piping

A cord which is encased in bias fabric and used to finish and decorate edges, waistlines, button holes and furnishings.

Cord seam

A seam with a corded effect which is produced by turning both seam edges to one side and then stitching through the three thicknesses of material.

Cotton

Natural fibre from Cotton plant seed pod. Typically ½ inch to 2 inches long fibres. Highest quality is Egyptian variety with fibres longer than 1 ½ inch.

Count of yarn

A number indicating the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of a yarn.

Crocking

This is when dye rubs off a fabric improperly dyed washed or finished.
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